Guide Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections (Infectious Disease and Therapy)

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Moreover, technological advancements in infectious disease diagnostics and growing demand in emerging countries are further propelling the industry growth. However, rising healthcare costs and stringent government regulation may hamper the industry growth to some extent.

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Infectious diseases are a disorder caused by a microorganism viruses, parasite, bacteria, and fungi among others. They may be transmitted directly or indirectly one person to another person.

Dr. Frederick Novy: A pioneer in microbiology & infectious disease

Moreover, infectious diseases are leading cause of death across the globe, particularly in low income countries, especially in adults. Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the globe. Diagnostics is the first step for the treatment and eradication of infectious diseases.

Owing to ever-evolving pathogens and emerging new diseases, there is an urgent need to identify suitable diagnostics technique for better treatment of each disease. Moreover, effective diagnostic techniques are important for the identification of the diseases and better treatments as well as control of outbreak in the population. Furthermore, technological advancement has rapidly changed the landscape of infectious disease diagnostics. Scientific research and development activities in novel technologies and technique such as mass spectrometry and next-generation sequencing NGS are changing the way that performs rapid diagnostics and detect antimicrobial resistance.

In addition, growing inclination of end-user towards point-of-care testing is also anticipated to drive the industry growth. The point-of-care diagnostics provide rapid actionable information for patients care at the real-time and site of an encounter with the healthcare system. Additionally, various major players are focused on research and development activities to develop point-of-care diagnostics solution for developing countries. To purchase report: sales energiasmarketresearch. North America held the largest share of the market in The growth in the region is attributed to the introduction of technologically advanced products and increasing investment by major key players.

Government and non-governmental organization in the United States which are focused on diagnostics development for infectious diseases established a list of top diagnostic development priorities or requirements. Moreover, growing focuses and development in point-of-care testing and laboratory-based diagnostics tests for infectious diseases further propelling the industry growth in the United States.

He was one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture. This gave rise to the germ theory , a certain microorganism being responsible for a certain disease. He developed a series of criteria around this that have become known as the Koch's postulates. A major milestone in medical microbiology is the Gram stain.

In Hans Christian Gram developed the method of staining bacteria to make them more visible and differentiable under a microscope. This technique is widely used today. In Alexander Fleming developed the most commonly used antibiotic substance both at the time and now: penicillin. DNA sequencing , a method developed by Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger in , [5] caused a rapid change the development of vaccines , medical treatments and diagnostic methods.

Molecular diagnostics of infectious diseases

Some of these include synthetic insulin which was produced in using recombinant DNA and the first genetically engineered vaccine was created in for hepatitis B. In a team at The Institute for Genomic Research sequenced the first bacterial genome ; Haemophilus influenzae. This would prove invaluable for diagnostic techniques. Infections may be caused by bacteria , viruses , fungi , and parasites.


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The pathogen that causes the disease may be exogenous acquired from an external source; environmental, animal or other people, e. Influenza or endogenous from normal flora e. The site at which a microbe enters the body is referred to as the portal of entry. There are various ways in which disease can be transmitted between individuals. These include: [20]. Like other pathogens, viruses use these methods of transmission to enter the body, but viruses differ in that they must also enter into the host's actual cells.

Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material RNA or DNA must be introduced to the cell. Replication between viruses is greatly varied and depends on the type of genes involved in them. The mechanisms for infection, proliferation, and persistence of a virus in cells of the host are crucial for its survival. For example, some diseases such as measles employ a strategy whereby it must spread to a series of hosts.

In these forms of viral infection, the illness is often treated by the body's own immune response , and therefore the virus is required to disperse to new hosts before it is destroyed by immunological resistance or host death. Identification of an infectious agent for a minor illness can be as simple as clinical presentation; such as gastrointestinal disease and skin infections. In order to make an educated estimate as to which microbe could be causing the disease, epidemiological factors need to be considered; such as the patient's likelihood of exposure to the suspected organism and the presence and prevalence of a microbial strain in a community.

Diagnosis of infectious disease is nearly always initiated by consulting the patient's medical history and conducting a physical examination. More detailed identification techniques involve microbial culture , microscopy , biochemical tests and genotyping. Microbiological culture is the primary method used for isolating infectious disease for study in the laboratory.


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  • Tissue or fluid samples are tested for the presence of a specific pathogen , which is determined by growth in a selective or differential medium. The 3 main types of media used for testing are: [26].

    Description

    Culture techniques will often use a microscopic examination to help in the identification of the microbe. Instruments such as compound light microscopes can be used to assess critical aspects of the organism. This can be performed immediately after the sample is taken from the patient and is used in conjunction with biochemical staining techniques, allowing for resolution of cellular features.

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    Electron microscopes and fluorescence microscopes are also used for observing microbes in greater detail for research. Fast and relatively simple biochemical tests can be used to identify infectious agents. For bacterial identification, the use of metabolic or enzymatic characteristics are common due to their ability to ferment carbohydrates in patterns characteristic of their genus and species.

    Acids, alcohols and gases are usually detected in these tests when bacteria are grown in selective liquid or solid media , as mentioned above. In order to perform these tests en masse, automated machines are used. These machines perform multiple biochemical tests simultaneously, using cards with several wells containing different dehydrated chemicals. The microbe of interest will react with each chemical in a specific way, aiding in its identification. Serological methods are highly sensitive, specific and often extremely rapid laboratory tests used to identify different types of microorganisms.

    The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen usually a protein or carbohydrate made by an infectious agent is bound by the antibody, allowing this type of test to be used for organisms other than bacteria. This binding then sets off a chain of events that can be easily and definitively observed, depending on the test. More complex serological techniques are known as immunoassays. Using a similar basis as described above, immunoassays can detect or measure antigens from either infectious agents or the proteins generated by an infected host in response to the infection.

    Polymerase chain reaction PCR assays are the most commonly used molecular technique to detect and study microbes. For instance, traditional PCR techniques require the use of gel electrophoresis to visualize amplified DNA molecules after the reaction has finished. Once an infection has been diagnosed and identified, suitable treatment options must be assessed by the physician and consulting medical microbiologists.

    Some infections can be dealt with by the body's own immune system , but more serious infections are treated with antimicrobial drugs.

    Infectious diseases - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic

    Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials often called antibiotics whereas fungal and viral infections are treated with antifungals and antivirals respectively. A broad class of drugs known as antiparasitics are used to treat parasitic diseases. Medical microbiologists often make treatment recommendations to the patient's physician based on the strain of microbe and its antibiotic resistances , the site of infection, the potential toxicity of antimicrobial drugs and any drug allergies the patient has.

    In addition to drugs being specific to a certain kind of organism bacteria, fungi, etc. Because of this specificity, medical microbiologists must consider the effectiveness of certain antimicrobial drugs when making recommendations. Additionally, strains of an organism may be resistant to a certain drug or class of drug, even when it is typically effective against the species. These strains, termed resistant strains, present a serious public health concern of growing importance to the medical industry as the spread of antibiotic resistance worsens.

    Antimicrobial resistance is an increasingly problematic issue that leads to millions of deaths every year. Whilst drug resistance typically involves microbes chemically inactivating an antimicrobial drug or a cell mechanically stopping the uptake of a drug, another form of drug resistance can arise from the formation of biofilms. Some bacteria are able to form biofilms by adhering to surfaces on implanted devices such as catheters and prostheses and creating an extracellular matrix for other cells to adhere to.

    Additionally, the extracellular matrix and dense outer layer of bacterial cells can protect the inner bacteria cells from antimicrobial drugs. Medical microbiology is not only about diagnosing and treating disease, it also involves the study of beneficial microbes. Microbes have been shown to be helpful in combating infectious disease and promoting health.